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Paddy cultivation-Lesson-1

Learning objectives

After completing the course

The course shall cover the scientific technique of increasing the yield of paddy, a new method of growing known as “SRI VIDHI”, the pests and the pesticides to be used, removal of weeds. It will have 11 lessons with video for each course.

Lesson-1

Scientific cultivation of paddy

  1. Scientific Cultivation of Paddy (part 1)
  2. Scientific Cultivation of Paddy (part 2)
  3. Controlling of weeds in paddy

Curriculum

Background

Rice is the staple food of people in India especially in Southern, and eastern parts of the country. As per statistics, West Bengal is the leading rice producer in India followed by Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra, Punjab, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Assam and Haryana. Part from India, paddy is cultivated in many parts of Asia such as China, Japan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, etc. Globally, China is the leading producer of rice with India being the next. Cultivating rice is needs a lot of water and labour force. Therefore, rice cultivation is practiced in those places wherein the labor cost is less and rainfall is high.

Audio Lessons

Course Coordinator

Prof. Dr. H. O. Srivastava

On-line Video Conferencing Lessons



 

Video Lessons

 

Scientific Cultivation of Paddy part-1(Video-1)

A large population depends on paddy for their livelihood. We can raise the standard of living of farmers by increasing the yield of agriculture. For this, it is necessary to change the traditional methods of farming. Our agriculture can be improved by proper use of soil, water, and environment. To make agriculture profitable, we have to reduce the cost incurred in agriculture. And this is possible only when we do scientific farming. So today we talk about scientific and advanced cultivation of paddy.Dr. Manoj Kumar, our scientist said that Most of the population here is dependent on agriculture, so agriculture is the core of life, agriculture is food & food is life.

Agriculture is the basic point of all development. No development is possible without the development of agriculture. Paddy is the main crop to increase the production of any region, there is need to concentrate on some points so that they can increase their yield.

In times of change we have to adopt agriculture as a benefactor. agriculture can turn into profitable farming, only when we can reduce its cost, then only it popular among farmers.

When we talk about scientific farming, farmers often get confused. farmers, there is no need to worried and tensed about scientific farming. Under this, the choice of the right fertilizer, water management, and the latest technologies are used according to your area. some necessary points are mentioned below in paddy farming by our scientist:

  1. According to the situation choose the right land
  2. Seeds should be of good quality
  3. Sow at the right time
  4. Use the right and balanced amount of fertilizer and manure
  5. Use organic manure along with chemical fertilizer
  6. Control weed on standing crop

In Irrigation management it's important to use the right amount of water at the right time with the right process is very important. Other important points are, provide fertilizer at right time and cutting and storage at right time. if farmers concentrate on these points, definitely they can increase their yield and made agriculture benefactor, these are some important points of the scientific method now will see some important things about scientific farming.

Paddy is the main kharif crop. Paddy is cultivated in Bihar at about thirty-five million hectares. But its productivity is much lower than other states. If some things are taken care of, then its productivity can be increased like timely sowing, water management, weed and pest control, Keeping all things in mind and using scientific methods, paddy cultivation can be increased. The selection of right land is also very important for paddy farming. We have been cultivating paddy in different lands, such as the upper land, lower land or deep waterlogged land. If we talk about the upper land then some important things are Prabhat, Turanta, Richiria, Saroj, Ghan Lakshmi, Pusa 2-21. These varieties are ready in 100 to 115 days. July 1 to 15 is the right time to sow these. The recommended seed of this is only 20 kg per hectare. When it is 20 to 25 days, then plant it in your fields and 15 centimeters apart from one plant to another. And also 15 centimeters of line to line distance. If we talk about paddy cultivation in medium land, Rajendra Bhagwati, Sita, Kanak, Rajendra Subhasini, Rajendra Kasturi, Saroj, IR 36, These are the main prabhed that are prepared in 115 to 120 days. The time for sowing these things is from 10 to 25 June. When it becomes 25 to 30 days, then remove it and plant it in the fields. It should be 20 x 15 cm apart from one plant to another.  Now paddy cultivation in deep land, for this swarna MTU7029. It gives a lot of crop. Apart from this Rajendra Mansuri, Rajendra Sweta, Raj Shree, Satyam, Kisori, etc are  considered as important things. All these are ready in 140 to 145 days. The right time to sow these is from 25 May to 10 June.  Apart from this, the deep land in which the water remains, there is also a different prabhed for this, Janaki, Sudha, Vaidehi, Jalaj are important.In aromatic paddy is the important prabhed of this Rajendra Kasturi, Rajendra Subhasini, Pusa Basmati, Sugandha 1-4. The correct time to sow all these is from 25 June to 15 July. Weeds in paddy stop the growth of plantation, Which reduces the yield of paddy significantly. At the same time, it also increases the cost of farming. There are some main methods of weed control, by chemical, by machine or by hand. In all these chemical methods is the right method, it also reduces the cost over time. To protect from weeds important is to selecting right chemical, best quality and required quantity is chosen is necessary. Take good quality of chemicals and mix 300 kg per hectare into 600 liters of water. The right quantity of manure is also told by our scientists in the given video.it is also important to increase the yield of paddy.

Scientific Cultivation of Paddy part-2(Video-2)

We discussed in the last part on the subject of scientific cultivation of paddy. You were taught about the preparation of fields for paddy cultivation, selection of varieties, weed control and behavior of balanced fertilizers. It is also important to pay attention such as how to treat paddy seeds, what precautions should be taken, how to manage water in it and which chemicals are to be used for weed control etc.
1. Treatment of Paddy seeds
First of all, we start with the treatment of paddy seeds, as you may also be aware that with seed treatment, diseases can be avoided in paddy.
The way to treat the seed is: Take a seed treatment drum and after inserting the seed and the required amount of seed treatment medicine in it, move its handle so that it mixes, making a layer on the top surface of the seed. And thus the seed is processed. If you do not have these drums available, you can also use a soil pot by adding seeds and medicine. The treated seed should be sown as soon as possible.
2. Use of chemicals to remove weed
Chemicals for weed removal should always be used as per the need, the less it is used, the better our cultivation will be. We also have many weed removal machines available to avoid the chemicals.
As told, weed pesticide should be used as per the requirement. If you have labor available say family labor, you can remove the grass by hand. If you sow on the line, so many tools are available with us to remove weed in between row. Less chemical is used for sustainable farming and is best for achieving SDG. The natural resource, organic manure or the local manure available in your country should be used in maximum quantity.
3. Cares for sustainable agriculture
Use the approved medicines in least quantity.
Use the pot with a nozzle to spray medicine
Do not spray the medicine in the scorching sun afternoon
Do not spray against at the speed of the wind.
Always spraying from the front to the back so that you get all the area coverage
While spraying the medicine, move slowly so that the quantity of your medicine is in the right amount and in the right place. Before doing this, farmers should always use gloves, put on masks and after taking all these precautions, use the recommended amount of medicine as per the need.
4. Irrigation management.
Let us know that from the time of sowing in paddy cultivation, water should be kept for 3 to 5 centimeters till 15 days before harvesting. Water is gradually decreasing in the world and is scarce. Drainage also plays a very important role. If there is a shortage of water, the yield will definitely come down, so the farmer should never allow water to fall in the crop at these times, a maximum 3 to 5 centimeters in the crop in all these stages are required. In other cases only if there is saturated ground, less water will work. But it is a matter of attention that under no circumstances should the paddy field crack. If it is so dry that the field gets cracked, then at a later stage more and more water will be required and your cost of crop production will increase. Using manure and fertilizers, chemicals for crop protection at the right time and by adopting the right method in the scheduled quantity will increase the usefulness of all these products and will certainly reduce the costs incurred in the crop; profit will be higher, crop production and productivity will also increase.
Dear learners, we talked about seed treatment, weed control, irrigation management. Apart from this, when the paddy Is matured well and the moisture in it is 15 to 20% ,Paddy should be harvested. After harvesting, it should be kept on the ground for 2 to 3 days so that the remaining grains dry up. The grains obtained should be dried properly before storing it.
10 to 12% moisture is enough for safe storage. If it is too low then there will be many types of damage in storage. if you have more, more heat will be generated. When there will be a condition of humidity, then the grain will attract insects, it's quality is reduced that affects germination and availability of the plant. Therefore, grains should be thoroughly dried in the sun to bring the right amount of moisture in it. Grains should be dried in the sun to bring the moisture to 10 to 12%. This should be tested by cutting the grain by tooth and observing the sound of cut.
5. Storage of grains in warehouse
Before storage, the warehouse should be properly disinfected. Whatever quantity of medicine is given, the walls should be modified and the sacks in which the crop is to be kept should also be treated with a medicine called Malathi and the storage should be slightly above the ground and also away from the wall on the stacking.
Dear learner, considering all these things, if you cultivate paddy, you can definitely get low cost and high income and your partner can strengthen your economic situation.

Controlling Weeds in Paddy (Video-3)

Paddy is considered as the most important food crop in developing countries and the crucial source of employment in rural areas. With proper field management, practices and irrigation facility, paddy farming would be profitable in a short period of time. It is important to pay attention to some main points. Such as-
1) What is weed?
2) Effect of weed on paddy crop
3) Types of weed found in paddy
4) How to control it?

What is a weed?
 Weed is an undesirable plant. They are one of the major biological threats to higher crop productivity worldwide.
 They being competed with the crop plants and deprive them of light, moisture, and nutrients.
 They are harmful to crops.
 They can survive even under adverse conditions.

Effects of weed on paddy crop
 Reduces the yield and quality of crops by competing for nutrients, water, and sunlight.
 Weeds either give shelter to various insects, pests and diseases or serve as alternate hosts.
 Reduces land value.
 Weeds are harmful to human beings, certain weeds cause irritation of the skin, allergy, and poisoning in human beings.
 In fields of crops infested with weeds, the tillage operations require high cost.
Weed damages and reduces approx. 33% yield in the crop. This reduction depends on the amount of weed available in the crop, if there is more weed, then crop reduced by 60-70%.

Types of weeds found in Paddy
Weeds found in paddy can be of mostly two types, such as broad-leaf weed and narrow-leaf weed. Ex- Echinocloa crusgalli (Barn yard grass), Eleucine indica (Goose grass), Ageratum conyzoides etc.
• Echinochloa crusgalli is a type of wild grass. It is commonly known as cockspur. This plant can grow to 1.5 m in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Considered one of the world's worst weeds, it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen.

• Eleusine indica, the Indian goosegrass,yard-grass, goosegrass, wiregrass, or is a species of grass in the family Poaceae. E. indica is primarily listed as an agricultural and environmental weed and is considered a “serious weed”. A single plant may produce more than 50,000 small seeds, which can be easily dispersed by wind and water, attached to animal fur and machinery and as a contaminant in soil.

• conyzoides is a grass reported as an invasive, noxious weed in agricultural lands and a open field, causing crop yield reductions and affecting biodiversity. It is also a host of pathogens and nematodes that affect crop species.

That is why it is said that 1/3rd of the beginning of the crop is very sensitive; the crop should be kept free from weeds in the beginning. Otherwise, this will damage the crop later.

How to control weeds
Weed control is important to prevent losses in crop and production costs, and to preserve good grain quality. Often, the farmers throw the weed out by hand but it takes too much time. The method that still works is the mechanical method. Under this, weeding is done by machine. This tool is designed to ease the task of removing weeds from fields. It works by driving the tool vertically into the soil in order to push any small weeds under the soil and disrupt their young fragile root systems.
There is another way to remove weeds from fields which is the use of pesticides, that farmers have been doing till now. Now let us know which pesticides should be used for different kind of weeds-
1) ANILOFOS is a pre-emergence and early post-emergence selective pesticide used for control of annual grasses, sedges and some broad-leaved weeds in transplanted. Anilophos is used at the rate of 1.33litre/ hectare in narrow leaf weeds.
2) Butachlor or HT is a post-emergence rice pesticide that provides excellent grass control. HT controls many major grassy weeds. A 3 ml/ liter of HT mixture with water should be sprayed on the crop within 4-5 days.
3) Pendimethalin is a selective pesticide used to control most annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds in fields. It is used both pre -emergence, that is before weed seeds have sprouted, and early post- emergence. 3 ml/liter of Pendimethalin with water, can be used in the field within 5 days.
Any of these pesticides can be sprayed in the fields within 3-5 days. Weeds will not grow and we will get good production by using pesticides. If not sprayed within time and weeds have arrived, then use Thiobencarb 3ml/litre with water, this will make the field weed- free.
Note- Never use chemicals in the opposite direction of the wind. By doing this, it can fall on the body which can cause many skin problems.

 

Paddy Cultivation Lesson-1 Quizzes

You have completed lesson-1 of the subject, "Scientific Cultivation of Paddy". You learnt about:

1. Scientific Cultivation of Paddy (part 1)

2. Scientific Cultivation of Paddy (part 2)

3. Major weeds in paddy

4. Controlling of weeds in paddy

Now take the following test