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Vegetable Farming

Learning objectives

After completing the course

The course shall cover the modern scientific techniques of growing various vegetables increasing the yield. The farmers will be able to:

 Sustainable & year round continuous production of creeper vegetables.
 Reduced pest and disease incidence.
 Enhanced quality of vegetables and there by increased income to farmers
from unit area.

 Understand the benefits of organic Farming




Vegetable Farming is a major sub sector of agriculture sector and is a significant contributor to the economy by generating employment to unskilled and semiskilled rural poor. Vegetables are an important part of our daily diet and are essential to provide the nutritional requirement of people of all age groups. The main aim of this course are:

1. Promotion of creeper vegetables like gourds .
2. Enhancing the productivity of creeper vegetables per unit area.
3. Enhancing quality of vegetable produce by reduced pest & disease incidence.
4. To support the farmers especially women to do backyard vegetable farming for livelihood generation and self consumption.

Course Coordinator

Prof. Dr. H. O. Srivastava


Scientific cultivation of vegetables

  1. 1.Scientific Method of Capsicum Farming
  2. 2. Scientific Method of Bottle gourd Farming
  3. 3. Scientific Method of Cauliflower farming
  4. 4. Cucumber farming
  5. 5. Onion Seed production
  6. 6. Cauliflower Seed Production
  7. 7. Egg plant (Brinjal) Farming
  8. 8. Potato Farming
  9. 9. Elephant foot yam (जिमीकंद) farming

Scientific Method of Capsicum (Shimla Mirch) Farming (Video /Text lessons and Quiz)

Video Lessons

Text Lessons

Capsicum is a popular vegetable for growing in warm areas because –
• This crop grows quickly
• Special care is not required
• Can be eaten raw or cooked
• It has lovely colours (green, then change to red, yellow, or orange)
In this section, we will study –
1) How to grow a crop?
2) Suitable climate
3) Caring
4) Harvesting crop
5) Benefits

How to grow a crop?
• Choose a location that receives full sunlight.
• But it should be protected from winds that can break stems.
• Capsicum grows best in fertile free drainage soils.
• So, pre-enrich the soil with manure, compost, or certified organic fertilizer.
• It is important to boost calcium levels in the soil to prevent rotten blooms later.
• Capsicum grows on a flowering shrub that can reach 60 or 80 cm.

Suitable climate
• Capsicum is basically a cool-season crop.
• Capsicum plants prefer a stable climate.
• The daytime temperature should below 30 ° C which is favourable for growth and yield.
• Shading is required during summer to avoid high temperatures in the greenhouse.

• Feed your plants and they will feed you.
• Plants use nutrients from the soil as they grow, so replenishing nutrients ensures your plants grow to their full potential.
• The best fertilizer for plants depends on your soil.
• A balanced fertilizer works for plants.
• Nitrogen is particularly important for stimulating good growth.
• Nitrogen fertilizer is given two and a half months after transplanting.
• Choose specially mixed fertilizers for your crop.
• Keep the soil moist during the growing season.

Harvesting crop
• Transplanting takes 11 to 13 weeks to grow in mature plants with capsicum ready for harvesting.
• The harvesting of capsicum fruit begins 80–90 days after transplanting.
• The best time for harvesting is in the morning.
• By doing this, plants are not directly exposed to the sunlight.
• Fruits can be harvested once in 3 to 4 days.
• Yellow and red fruits can be harvested when they achieve 50–80 percent of color development.

• Capsicum is an excellent source of vitamins A and C (red has more than green capsicum)
• The sweetness of capsicum is due to their natural sugars (green capsicum has less sugar)
• Good source of fiber
• Good for eyes
• Burns more calories
• Supports the immune system
• Meets iron deficiency
• Benefits of potassium
• Enhances hair growth and health
• Makes skin healthy and youthful
• Prevents anemia



Dear learner,

You have learnt following aspects of  Capsicum farming:

1. How to Grow

2. Suitable Climate

3. Caring  & Harvesting


Now please go through the test to qualify for a certificate

Scientific method of Onion Seed Production

Video lesson

Text lesson

In this section, we will study-
1) Selection of land for quality seed production
2) Seed selection
3) Methods of seed production
4) Pests management
5) Benefits of onion

Selection of land for quality seed production
• The selection of land is the first and most important task.
• Fertile and healthy land will certainly produce quality seeds.
• Soils with neutral pH should be selected.
• Loam or clay loam soil is most suitable.
• High organic matter will produce quality seeds.
• The soil should be rich in organic matter.
• The land should be free from weeds.
• Plant the seed in a well-drained area.

Seed selection
• Quality seeds should be used to obtain healthy seeds.
• High yield is important without sacrificing genetic purity.
• Yield and quality depend on seed selection.
• To grow seed crops, we should choose breeder seed or foundation seeds.
• It is advisable to grow it during the rabi season.

Methods of seed production
• There are two methods of seed production-
1) seed to seed method
2) bulb to seed method
• The bulb to seed method is the most commonly used method for seed production.

Pests management
• Many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases can affect the growth of onion seeds.
• Purple stains, staphylium blight and colletotricum blight in onions are the major diseases.
• Spraying of mencozeb (0.25%) or chlorothalonil (0.20%) with a sticker was found effective in seed crop.
• Trichoderma @ 1250 g per hectare with FYM if applied in soil before planting is effective against basal rot in seed crop.
• Thrips are the major insect pests in onions.
• For the control of thrips, application of cypermethrin 25 EC @ 0.01 percent or deltamethrin @ 0.01 percent is recommended.

Benefits of onion
• Loaded with antioxidants
• Cancer-fighting compounds are present
• Control blood sugar
• Promoting healthy digestion
• Improve immune system
• Promote Respiratory Health
• Enhance eye health
• Increase brain health
• Treat pimples
• Promote child development
• Lowers bad cholesterol


Onion Seed Production

Dear Learner, You have learnt: 1) Selection of land for quality seed production 2) Seed selection 3) Methods of seed production 4) Pests management 5) Benefits of onion Now you have to take a quiz to qualify for a Certificate.

Eggplant (Brinjal) Farming (Video /Text lessons and Quiz)

Video Lessons-1 Main Diseases in Egg Plant

Video Lessons-2: Diseases, control and Medicines

Text Lesson

Eggplant Farming

• Eggplant is commonly known as brinjal.
• It is a warm-season vegetable that is harvested in mid to late summer.
In this course, we will study-
1) Soil requirement
2) Water requirement
3) Pest / Diseases
4) Harvesting
5) Caring
6) Benefits

Soil Requirement

• Eggplant grows best in a well-drained sandy loam or loam soil, high in organic matter.
• Soil pH should be between 5.8 to 6.5 for the best growth.
• The soil should be fertile and well-drained.
• Eggplant requires a moderate amount of fertilizer.
• If you are growing brinjals in pots, use darker containers that will absorb more sunlight.
• Use a premium potting mix to prevent illness.
• Note: Too much nitrogen can cause excessive vegetative growth.

Water Requirement

• It is very important for the seeds to have optimum moisture levels for the sprouts to germinate.
• Eggplants thrives best when there is constant soil moisture.
• Avoid overhead watering to prevent disease.
• But consider using mulch to keep the soil moist, warm and weed-less.
• Over irrigation can be harmful.

Pests / diseases

• Aphids, beetles and spider mites are the main pests that affect plant growth.
• Flea beetles are probably the most common insect, but a healthy eggplant should be able to withstand damage from their small holes.
• The damage is generally severe only on young seedlings.
• Grow plants under row cover until they are large enough to tolerate leaf damage.
• Powdered mildew can affect eggplant.
• It appears as white, powdery spots on leaves that may turn yellow and die.
• The best method of control is prevention.


• The crop should be harvested approximately 2-3 months after germination.
• Depending on the variety, harvest 65 to 80 days after transplanting.
• Do not wait too long to harvest.
• After that, it will harden and the seeds will begin to harden.
• While harvesting, do not pull the fruit.
• Once ready, eggplants are harvested at least once per week, preferably twice a week.


• Apart from the basics of sun and water, brinjal is generally a fairly hardy plant, and does not require much external nutrients or food.
• The basic preparation of soil starts 1 month before planting the brinjal.
• Eggplant plants require a lot of sunlight to grow.
• Regular watering and seeds usually germinate within 2-3 weeks.
• Choose an area with abundant sunlight and fertile, well-drained soil.
• If necessary, make sure that the plants will get adequate nutrients.


• Great sources of vitamins and minerals
• Help with digestion
• Improve heart disease
• Prevents ANEMIA
• Rich in fiber
• Source of antioxidants
• Controls blood sugar
• Improves brain health
• Good for bone health
• Good for skin and hair


Egg Plant (Brinjal) Farming

In this lesson, you have learnt about egg plant (brinjal) farming. You learnt:

1. Requirement of soil

2. Requirement of water

3. Pest/Diseases

4. Harvesting

5. Caring

6. Benefits

Now, You have to go through the quizzes to qualify for the certificate.

Elephant foot yam (जिमीकंद) farming: Video lesson, text lesson and Quizzes

Video lesson

Text lesson

The elephant foot yam or (जिमीकंद), is a tropical tuber crop grown primarily in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the tropical Pacific islands. Because of its production potential and popularity as a vegetable in various cuisines, it can be raised as a cash crop.

• Elephant foot yam is a profitable stem tuber crop.
• The crop is gaining popularity due to its easiness in cultivation, high productivity, less incidence of pests and diseases, steady demand, and reasonably good price.
• It has high nutritive value, good taste, medicinal values and cooking quality.
In this course, we will study-
1) Soil
2) Planting
3) Irrigation
4) Pest management
5) Benefits


• Well-drained, fertile, sandy loam soil is most suited for its cultivation.
• Rich red-loamy soil with a pH range of 5.5-7.0 is preferred.
• It is a tropical and subtropical crop.
• It requires humid and warm weather.


• April – May is the planting season.
• Cut tubers or small tubers are used as seed.
• Treat the seeds with Trichoderma or with biogas celery for 8-10 hours.
• Sprouting takes place in about a month.


• Light irrigation is given during the early stages of crop.
• The crop is susceptible to water stagnation.
• Water stagnation is harmful to the crop.
• Wherever irrigation facility is available, irrigation can be given once a week.
• First irrigation should be provided at the time of sowing.

Pest management

• There is very little risk of any pests and diseases.
• It is free from major pests and diseases except for the collar rot.
• Waterlogging, poor drainage and mechanical injury are the cause of collar pests.
• Disease-free planting material, removal of infected plants, improvement of drainage, use of bio-control agents such as Trichoderma and soil can be managed by drought with 0.2%.


• Loaded with vitamin B6, vitamin C and vitamin A.
• Lowering cholesterol
• Prevent cancer
• Control diabetes
• Anti-inflammatory
• Boost immunity
• Slow down aging
• Detoxification


Elephant foot yam (जिमीकंद) farming

In this lesson you have learnt about Elephant foot yam (जिमीकंद) farming. You learnt about:

1) Soil
2) Planting
3) Irrigation
4) Pest management
5) Benefits

Now you have to take the quizzes to qualify for getting a certificate.

Vegetable Farming

Scientific method of Bottle gourd (kaddu) Farming

Video lesson

Text lesson

Bottle gourd is a low-calorie healthy food rich in vitamins, minerals, and water.
In this section, we will study-
1) Seed treatment and sowing
2) How to grow?
3) Harvest and yield
4) Plant Care
5) Pest and Management
6) Benefits

Seed treatment and sowing
• Before sowing, soak the seeds in water for 10 to 24 hours for germination.
• Before the seeds are sown in pits, treat the seeds with Trichoderma 4 grams or Pseudomonas fluorescence 10 grams or Carbendazim 2 grams per kilogram of seeds.
• Sow three or four seeds and remove the weak seedlings, transplant two after 15 days.
• Seeds should germinate in 6-8 days.

How to grow?
• Summer and monsoon are the best time to plant seeds.
• The seeds are sown directly in small pits or on raised beds that germinate in 7-8 days.
• Bottle gourd plants grow very quickly and quickly form a climber’s habit.
• Strong trellis support must be built for climbers to grow.
• Many gardeners allow the plant to bury the ground or climb the roof of the house.

Harvest and yield
• They become edible and reach the harvesting stage 10 to 12 days after growing.
• Bottle gourd harvesting can begin 55 days after sowing and can be continued at intervals of 3 to 4 days.
• Fruits should be harvested while they are still green.
• The harvesting season begins 2-3 months after sowing the seeds and continues for about 6-8 weeks.

Plant Care
• Bottle gourds are annual plants that grow as a vine and die each winter.
• It is often grown on a trellis so that the gourd can hang until ripening.
• It should be grown in open and sunny places.
• Feed the plant with manure.
• Repeat this 2-3 times during the growing season.
• Bottle gourd plants require plenty of water for growth.
• This requires abundant moisture at all times.
• Also, remove all old yellow leaves of the plants.

Pest and Management
• Fruit fly – lays eggs on fruits.
• To destroy any pupae, apply Carbaryl 10% DP in the pit before sowing.
• For small farming, the fruits can be covered with polythene bags.
• For large farms, Carbaryl is sprayed with 25 grams or 15 liters of Malathion 40 ml.
• Epilachna beetles – The beetles and their grubs eat the leaves, resulting in their destruction.
• This affects the productivity of plants.
• Spraying of Carbaryl 25 grams per 15 liters of water.
• Red Pumpkin Beetles – They feed on roots, stems and fruits.
• Spray Malathion 50 EC, 500 ml or Methyl Demeton 25 EC at the rate of 1.235 liter per acre.
• Aphids – They are carriers of mosaic virus, further damaging the foliage.
• For adhesion, spray imidacloprid at the rate of 0.5 ml per liter with Tipol, Tritron.

• Cools your body
• Helps in weight loss
• Cures stomach discomfort
• Keep your heart healthy
• It is rich in nutrients
• It keeps your body hydrated
• It helps in regulating blood pressure
• It can prevent kidney stones
• Helps digestion
• Benefits skin


Bottle gourd Farming

Dear learner,

You have learnt about Bottle gourd farming. You have learnt.

1.Seed Treatment

2. Growing of seeds

3. Harvest and Yield

4. Plant care

5. Benefits

Now you have to take following quizzes to qualify

Scientific Method of Cucumber farming (Kakri /Kheera) Farming (Video /Text lessons and Quiz)

Video Lesson 1

Video Lesson 2

Text Lesson

Cucumber farming
Cucumbers grow quickly as long as they receive consistent watering and warmth.
In this section, we will study-
1) Plant requirement
2) Where to plant cucumber?
3) Irrigation
4) caring
5) Protection from Pests and diseases
6) Benefits

Plant requirement
• Cucumber requires warmth, fertile soil, and consistent moisture.
• Make sure that the soil is moist.
• Don’t plant outdoors until the weather is warm – usually a week or two after the last spring frost.
• Soil should not be soggy.
• Soil should be neutral or slightly acidic with a pH of around 6.5 to 7.0.
• Improve soil by adding organic matter.
• Rich, healthy soil will keep your plants well-fed and retains more moisture.
• If you live in the cool climates, you can help warm the soil by covering the row with black plastic.
• When you begin preparing the soil, remove any rocks, sticks etc.
• Then mix ample amounts of organic matter and fertilizer into the soil.

Where to Plant Cucumbers
• Choose a site that has adequate drainage and fertile soil.
• Since cucumbers are a vine crop, they usually require a lot of space.
• In large gardens, cucumbers vines may spread throughout rows; within smaller gardens, cucumbers may be trained for climbing on a trellis.
• Training cucumbers on a trellis will reduce space and lift the fruit off the soil.
• A trellis is a good idea to vine to climb for a limited space.
• Take advantage of the vining habit of cucumbers and make use of vertical space.
• Trellising also protects the fruit from damage from lying on the moist ground.

• Plants have a higher demand for moisture during pollination and fruit development.
• Drip systems are typically the most efficient in terms of water usage per acre.
• They can be used to deliver nutrients to the root zone.
• They can reduce weed growth between rows.
• However, they may require more management effort, and drip tape needs to be replaced every season.

• Feed your plants regularly.
• Amend the soil with granular fertilizer at planting time and follow up with liquid fertilizer during the growing season.
• Check the soil moisture every morning.
• Always check the soil moisture with your finger before watering.
• If dry, water thoroughly.
• If wet, don’t water again until the soil feels dry on top.

Protection from Pests and diseases
• Cucumbers are easy to grow and generally don’t have many problems—but there are a few things to watch for:
• Mix 1 teaspoon baking soda with 1 drop of dish soap and 1 quart of water and spray on the plants—it raises the pH of leaf surfaces, making them less attractive to spores.
• Mix 1part cow’s milk with 9 parts water and use the mixture as a foliar spray after each rain.
• The enzymes in the milk are said to discourage the fungus.
• Cucumber beetles and squash bugs are the most common pests of cucurbits.
• The yellow and black cucumber beetles have big appetites and move quickly — but you can spray them with neem oil.
• Managing these pests also helps prevent diseases, because insects are often carriers of the disease.
TIP: Cover new seedlings with garden fabric until they start to flower.

• They contain antioxidants and micronutrients.
• Cucumbers may help keep your blood pressure in check
• Cucumbers keep you mega-hydrated
• Skincare
• Cancer prevention
• Weight loss
• Boosts Immunity
• Detoxes Your Body
• Regulates Blood Pressure


Cucumber farming

In this lesson on cucumber farming, you have learnt:

1. Plant requirements

2. Where to plant cucumber


4. Caring

5. Protection from pests

6. Benefits

Now you have to reply to quizzes.

Scientific method of Cauliflower Seed Production

Video lesson

Text lesson

Cauliflower is a sun-loving, cool-weather crop to grow in spring.
In this section, we will study-
1) Quality seed
2) Characteristics of quality seeds
3) Climate
4) Soil
5) Cauliflower pests and their control
6) Benefits

Quality seed
• The ability of a seed is fully only when it has its quality in terms of physical, genetic, and health aspects.
• Seeds with essential standards of purity, germination, and other characteristics are known as quality seeds.

Characteristics of quality seeds
• Genetic purity
• Physical purity
• Seed germination and vigor
• Seed health
In addition, it should also contain the following characters-
• It should have good shape, size, color etc.
• It should be free from weed seeds.
• It should be free from designated diseases.
• It should have high longevity and shelf life.
• It should have optimum moisture content for storage.
• It should have a high market value.

• It thrives best in cool, moist climates.
• Dry weather and low humidity are not suitable for this.
• High temperature produces poor quality curd (edible white part).
• Dry hot weather can also give rise to small hard curds.
• Cauliflower is a shallow-rooted crop and requires proper moisture harvest.

• Cauliflower needs a well-drained, fertile soil that is rich in organic matter.
• Light soils are good for early cropping while clay loam soils are well suited for high yields.
• The area chosen for seed production should be fertile, the loam or soil loam should be well-drained.
• The ideal pH is 6–7, it will tolerate slightly alkaline soils.

Cauliflower pests and their control
• If possible, apply disease-resistant seed.
• Treat seeds with warm water to kill bacterial infection.
• Do not use old seeds or improperly stored seeds, which will cause disease to vulnerable plants.
• Allow enough space between transplants to promote good air circulation.
• Spraying the crop with malathion (0.1%) or profenophos (0.25–0.5 kg a.i./ha) controls the larvae.

• High in fiber
• Good Source of Antioxidants
• High in Choline
• Rich in Sulforaphane
• Keep your brain healthy
• Rich in Vitamins and Minerals
• Low in Carbohydrates and Gluten-Free
• Cancer Prevention
• Enhance Bone Health
• Keep Skin and Hair Healthy
• Cauliflower Helps Detoxify
• Improves Kidney Health


Cauliflower seed production

In this lesson on Cauliflower seed production, you have learnt about:

1. Quality Seed production

2 Characteristic of quality seed

3. Soil

4. Cauliflower seed pests and control

5. Benefits

Scientific Method of Potato Farming (Video /Text lessons and Quiz)

Video Lesson 1: Scientific Method of Potato Farming Part-1

Video Lesson 2: Scientific Method of Potato Farming Part-2

Video Lesson 3:Main diseases of potato

Text Lesson

Potato Farming

• Potato is an adaptable plant.
• Temperature, light, soil type, moisture content, and nutrients affect potato growth in an effective way.
In this course, we will study-
1) Soil
2) How to plant potatoes?
3) Irrigation
4) Harvesting
5) Fertilization
6) Pests and diseases
7) Caring
8) Health benefits


• Potatoes can be grown on almost any type of soil, except saline and alkaline soils.
• Potatoes can be grown well in fertile and well-drained soil.
• Loam and sandy loam soils rich in organic matter are best suited with good drainage and aeration.
• Soils with a pH range of 5.2–6.4 are considered ideal.

How to plant potatoes?

• Potato tubers require a sufficient amount of air and water.
• In addition, they require underground space to expand in size to grow.
• Potato crops are usually grown not from seeds but from seed potatoes.
• The purity of buds and healthy seed tubers is essential for a successful harvest.
• Select a seed potato that has raised buds.
• After potato plants emerge, place organic mulch between rows to conserve moisture, help weed control, and cool the soil.


• The soil moisture should be maintained at a relatively high level.
• For better yield, irrigation should be done immediately after sowing.
• This allows for proper seed germination.
• The frequency of irrigation varies with the place.
• Irrigation is done about fifteen days before harvesting.
• It promotes the hardening of the skin of the tuber before harvesting the potatoes.
• Potatoes require irrigation at frequent intervals, depending on soil and climatic conditions.


• The yellowing of the leaves of the potato plant and the easy separation of the tubers from their stoles indicate that the crop has reached maturity.
• If the potatoes are to be stored, they are left in the soil to thicken their skin.
• Lack of water prevents thick skin storage diseases and shrinkage.
• However, leaving a tuber in the ground for too long comes in contact with a fungus called a black coloured fungus.
• To facilitate harvesting, potato vines should be removed two weeks in advance so that potatoes can be dug.
• During harvesting, it is important to avoid injuries.


• The use of chemical fertilizer depends on the level of available soil nutrients.
• In irrigated commercial production, fertilizer requirements are relatively high.
• Potato can benefit from the application of organic manure at the beginning of a new rotation.
• It provides a good nutrient balance and maintains soil structure.

Pests and diseases

• Against diseases, some basic precautions – crop rotation, tolerant varieties, and using healthy, certified seed tubers – can help avoid great harm.
• There is no chemical control for bacterial and viral diseases, but they can be controlled by regular monitoring (and spraying, when necessary) of their aphid vectors.
• To prevent the formation of pathogens in the soil, farmers avoid growing potatoes on the same land from year to year.


• Weeds must be controlled to give the crop a “competitive advantage”.
• If the weeds are large, they should be removed.
• Ridging consists of mashing the soil from the rows around the main stem of the potato plant.
• The ridging keeps the plants upright and loosens the soil, preventing insect pests from reaching such tuber pests.
• It also helps prevent the growth of weeds.
• Ridging should be done two or three times at an interval of 15 to 20 days.

Health Benefits

• Regulates blood pressure
• Heart-healing properties
• Improve brain health
• Help promote digestion
• Good for bones
• Reduce swelling
• Good for dark circles and puffy eyes
• Reduce fine lines and wrinkles
• Treats dry skin
• Good for kidney
• High fiber content


Potato Farming

In this course on Potato Farming, you learnt: 1) Soil 2) How to plant potatoes? 3) Irrigation 4) Harvesting 5) Fertilization 6) Pests and diseases 7) Caring 8) Health benefits Now you have to take quizzes to qualify for a certificate.

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