Goat rearing – Major breeds
Goat rearing is very popular because they are very valuable domestic animal. Goats are rearing for meat, milk, fiber, and skin. It plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in adverse harsh environment in low fertility. In this section, we will discuss-
- Advantages of goat rearing
- Major breeds
Advantages of goat rearing
People of almost every category are rearing goats easily due to low cost and simple maintenance. The market prices of their products are always high. Goats are hence rightly called as “poor man’s cow”.
Goat rearing is becoming a dominant means of self-employment.
Investment needed for goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock species.
Goat creates employment to the rural poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labor.
No new technique or training is required for goat rearing.
Manure is made from goat’s dung which is used in crops, this increases the fertility of the soil.
Major breeds of goats
About 102 species of goats are found in the world. Out of these, about 20 species are rearing in India.
- Black Bengal goats are normally black. Though, it can also found in white and brown colour.
- The goat of this species is found in Bihar, Bengal, Jharkhand, Assam and North Orissa.
- Adult male goat weighs about 18-20 kg and an adult female goat weighs about 15-18 kg.
- Both male and female goats have small or medium horns.
- The ears of black bengal goats are short.
- The fertility of this breed is very good. It gives children 3 times in 2 years.
- It gives birth to 2-3 children at a time.
- The lamb of this breed attains adulthood at the age of 8-10 months and Gives children for the first time at an average age of 15-18 months.
- The goat of this breed produces very less milk.
- Goats of this breed are considered suitable for milk production.
- The body size of Jamunapari is bigger and taller than other breeds.
- They are of white, black, yellow, brown or various mixed colored.
- This goat has long sized legs with long hair in the thigh and back legs.
- Adult male goat weighs about 70-90 kg and an adult female goat weighs about 50-60 kg.
- The weight of its children is about 2.5-3 kg.
- Jamunapari gives milk about 1.5-2 ltr daily.
- These goats depend mainly on leaves and bushes.
- Most of the Beetals goats coloured in red or golden brown with white spots.
- But in the body size, it is smaller than Jamunapari.
- Its ear is long, wide and hanging.
- Adult male goat weighs about 55-60 kg and an adult female goat weighs about 45-55 kg.
- Beetal goat gives birth to pair in a year.
- It is look like deer and its breed is mainly found in Agra, Mathura of U.P.
- These are brown spots with white color.
- The Barbari is a dual-purpose breed, reared both for meat and for milk.
- Adult male goat weighs about 35-40 kg and an adult female goat weighs about 25-30 kg.
- These breed is reared for milk production.
- Goats of this breed can also be raised without grazing.
- Sirohi goat is a medium sized animals. It has brown colored with dark or light brown patches.
- Adult male goat weighs about 40-50 kg and an adult female goat weighs about 35-40 kg.
The breed produced by the combination of goats and goats of any two breed is called Sankar breed.
Modern Methods of Goat Rearing
A goat is an animal that is capable of living in almost all climates. Goats are multi-functional animals. One can produce a wide variety of products from them like milk, meat, fiber, manure, etc.
Currently, goat farming has become a profitable business and requires a very low investment. In this course, we will discuss –
- Selection of housing
- Food management
- Caring methods
Selection of Housing
- The location of raising cattle should be a major priority for any farmer. But in the case of goat rearing, we select such type of land that is infertile or wasteland. It costs very less.
- The location should be free from poisonous plants. Because the goat will eat anything, which is green.
- Always choose a high place; so water does not collect during rainy days.
Goats are herbivorous animal. Usually, goats prefer to eat grasses, plants, shrubs, and herbs. Feeding nutritious foods to goats keeps them healthy, increase milk, and increase productivity.
According to experts, three types of food should be given to goats.
- Green fodder
- Dry fodder
- Green Fodder- Apart from grazing, goats also likes to eat the green leaves of the tree. Like- banyan leaves, peepal leaves, tamarind leaves, and jackfruit leaves, etc. We can also feed goats by growing grass as green fodder.
- Dry fodder- hay and straw can be given to goats to eat.
- Grains- Only green and dry fodder is not enough for goats, it is also necessary to give them some amount of grain. Like- bran, maize, etc.
- In such areas, where rainfall not enough, goats are given oats, pigeon pea, cowpea, and Napier grass in fodder.
- We can grow fodder in places where irrigation is provided; in such places, we can give goats grass like Berseem and Raska grass.
- The farmers who grow root vegetables, they throw the remaining leaves after selling the vegetables. Instead of throwing, they can give goats to eat. For example- cabbage and cauliflower leaves.
- At water logging areas, mercury grass is grown. This grass thrives well in a water logging areas to feed goats.
- In the barren land, tree leaves are suitable for fodder.
- How to provide green fodder to goats throughout the year?
Mostly three types of grasses are selected for this-
||NB-21, pusha giant
Precautions while giving fodder-
- Never keep the fodder on the ground.
- Do not feed the fodder drowned in the pond.
- If the fodder is wet, first dry it.
- Dry fodder should not be rotten.
- Clean the place regularly.
- Do not keep more than needed goats in a place.
- Keep kids separate from mature goats.
- Give goats’ clean water.
- Get goats vaccinated periodically.
- Do spray germicides regularly in living place.
- Give medicines to goats to prevent insects and diseases.
- Keep sick goats apart and get them treated immediately.
Signs of illness-
- Behavior becomes unusual.
- Showing little interest in food or water.
- Isolates himself from the rest of the herd.
- Drying skin
- Body temperature rises upto 102C-103C.
- Speed of taking breaths increases.
If such symptoms are found in the goat, it should be treated immediately.
PPR or Goat Plague
In this course, we will study-
- What is PPR?
What is PPR
- Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) also known as “goat plague”, is a viral disease of goats and sheep.
- This disease causes fever, sores in the mouth, diarrhea, pneumonia, and sometimes death.
- It is caused by a morbillivirus virus, which is related to rinderpest, measles and canine distemper.
- It is devastating to animals.
- PPR infection usually ends up killing 70-80% of the animals in a herd.
- Baby and young animals usually victim to the disease.
- The normal body temperature of a goat is 103 degrees F, but in this disease, it increases to 105-106 degrees F.
- Symptoms of pneumonia and diarrhea begin to appear.
- Sores appear in the mouth of goats.
- The goat becomes very weak.
- Discharge from the eyes and nose, which form a crust, making breathing difficult and forcing eyes shut.
- Their breath smells awful.
- PPR vaccine should be given on the advice of the vet as the goat is born.
- Getting vaccinated will get rid of this disease for 3 years.
If symptoms of PPR appear in the goat, then it should be treated immediately.
- First of all, consult the vet.
- In this condition, the goat should be given either a salt-sugar solution or jaggery.
- Anti-diarrheal medications should be given to prevent diarrhea. These medicines supply the deficiency of electrolytes and minerals in the body.
- Anti-biotic are used to avoid infections.
- Anti-pyretic is used to avoid fever.
- If the PPR treatment is done at the right time, then the death rate can be reduced from 75-80% to 10-15%.