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Cattle Rearing

Learning objectives

After completing the course

For many years, dairy farmers have played an important role in economic growth due to milk production. Dairy farming refers to raising animals commercially for milk production. Animals that give milk are called milk / dairy animals. For example, goat, buffalo, cow, etc.There is a huge demand for milk and milk products worldwide. We have two courses, the present covering cow., and a separate course for goat/sheep rearing

The present course shall cover the scientific methods of rearing cattle, mainly cows and economic aspects of the business of cow rearing.

Lesson-1

Scientific cultivation of paddy

  1. Practical & economic aspects milk production
  2. Clean milk production
  3.  Cow rearing (part 1)
  4. Cow rearing (part 2)
  5. Buffalo rearing
  6. Artificial insemination
  7. Clean and healthy milk production
  8. Practical and economic aspects of milk production

Curriculum

Background

Cattle rearing involves management of two types of animals- one group for food requirements like milk and another for labor purposes like plowing, irrigation, etc. Animals which provide milk are called milk/dairy animals. For example, goats, buffalo, cows, etc.

Cattle rearing is an important economic activity in India. Milk and milk products (Butter, Ghee etc) meat, eggs, leather, and silk are raw materials for industries. Animals provide a large proportion of energy required in the farm sector. The bullocks, buffaloes, horses, ponnies, camel etc. are used as draught animals. They are used in agricultural activities like ploughing of fields, drawing of water from wells and for carrying loads. It is to be noted here that with rise in mechanized farming, the use of animal power for farm operations is on gradual decline. Hides and skins of animals are used as raw material for leather industries. Sheep, goats and camels provide wool. Their dung are used for biomass gas production and for making manure.

Course Coordinator

Prof. Dr. H. O. Srivastava

On-line Video Conferencing Lessons


Video Lessons

Cattle health and protection from diseases

Vaccination of cow

Pregnancy in cow

Practical and economic aspects of milk production

Milk is produced daily and provides a regular cash income to the owners.In addition to income from milk sales, sources of income include sales of animals and young stock, and other dairy farming returns, such as sales of manure. Dairy production provides many non-marketed economic benefits, including manure for use on-farm as fuel or organic fertilizer. Dairy production has lower economies of scale than other livestock systems because it requires high labour input.

In developing countries, dairy animals are often the sole asset of the landless. Milk production can involve many fixed costs, including fodder for animal maintenance. There is a need to adopt modern methods to gainfully employ this profession. This is more important in view of reports of FAO, “A dairy farm with nine cows in India has similar labour costs (per litre of milk) to those of a farm with 350 cows in the United States of America.”

Dairy development is a sustainable, equitable and powerful tool for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty reduction because dairying:

  1. provides a regular source of income;
  2. provides nutritious food;
  3. generates on- and off-farm employment;/li>
  4. creates opportunities for women (e.g., milk money);

 How to get profit from dairy farming?

  • Dairy farm is beneficial when-
    o You are able to control your costs.
    o You can provide the quality milk.
    o You can care the cattle.
  • In any dairy farm, fodder is a major expense
  • Fodder management can help reduce costs.
  • Keeping the cows energetic and healthy is very important for the growing dairy business.
  • Morning physical activity of cows is very important to keep them healthy.
  • Building a proper shelter also plays an important role in growing dairy.
  • It is also important to develop a detailed business plan.
  • Follow appropriate methods for marketing.
  • Try to hire dedicated and experienced people.
  • Try to buy bulk feeds at the best price but never compromise on quality.

 How to solve the fodder shortage?

  • Regular supply of fodder is essential for the development of dairy and livestock.
  • A major problem of dairy production is lack of fodder.
  • These issues come with increasing demand for dairy products.
  • Cattle are normally given green fodder, dry fodder and concentrated fodder.
  • Concentrated feeds contain a mixture of grains, minerals and vitamins.
  • The source of green fodder is from agricultural land, forest etc.
  • Silage is the best feed during lack of fodder.

Cow rearing (part-1)

Cow rearing (part-2)

Clean Milk production

chilling of milk

Clean milk production

• Milk is basically produced as food for human consumption.
• It is the primary source of nutrition for infants.
• It should be produced and handled under hygienic condition.
In this section, we will learn-
1. What is clean milk?
2. Clean milk production techniques What is clean milk?

• ‘Clean milk’ refers to raw milk from healthy animals.
• Clean milk should free from harmful bacteria or chemicals, dust, dung, hair, flies etc. in it.
• It should be safe for human consumption.

 Clean milk production techniques

Milker

• Maintain small nails and cover the head.
• Avoid smoking while milking time.
• Always wash hands before tapping milk.

Milking environment
• Animals should be reared in a clean place.
• Provide a cement floor for easy and proper cleaning.
• The place should be cleaned regularly.
• The place should be washed with phenyl or bleaching powder.
• It should be cleaned after every milking.

Milking

• The animal should be bathed daily.
• Wash the udder thoroughly.
• Wipe the udder with a clean cloth.
• Regularize milking interval

The vessel

• Use a clean vessel for keep milk.
• Dirty utensils are the main source of harmful bacteria in milk.
• Use aluminum or stainless-steel utensils.
• Wash with warm water using brush and detergent.
• Place utensils on the rack to dry.

Filtering

• Use white filter cloth.
• Sieve immediately after milking.
• Wash and dry the filter cloth after use.

Dairy Cow Farming (part-1)

Cow is a very useful domestic animal.
Dairy cows are reared exclusively to produce milk.
In this session, we will learn-
1) Selection of breed of cow
2) How to feed cows for more milk?
3) Caring of cows/ calves

 Selection of cow breed

• Proper selection is the first and most important step that is adopted in dairy.
• Animals should be selected according to the climate.
• The animal should be selected based on its breed characters.
• Production of animals also varies within a breed.
• Other factors affecting milk production are the age of the animal, frequency of milking, management, type of nutrition, environment, stage of pregnancy, etc.
• Milk production capacity.
• Disease resistance
• Physical Appearance.
• Adaptability and heat tolerance.
• Temperament and dairy disposition.
• Service period.

 How to feed cows for more milk?

• The food of the cow determines the quality and quantity of milk produced.
• It is important that a farmer meets the nutritional requirements of a dairy cow by providing adequate rations.
• For a healthy and productive cow, feed ration must have a balance of quantity, quality, protein, minerals and vitamins.
• Fodder is a heavy fodder that is full of energy and protein.
• They are important for high milk production in dairy cows.
• A dairy cow should consume 15 to 20 kg of fodder daily.

 Caring of cows / calves

• It is important to pay attention to the health and hygiene status of the cows and calves.
• Keep them clean and dry.
• Cows need many dietary components to stay healthy.
• High yielding dairy cows require high amounts of protein such as mixed weed feed, alfalfa, and other protein supplements.
• They also require salt and minerals.
• Feed them well in the morning with all nutritious foods.
• Sitting in the shelter all day weakens their bones.
• They should be left in the open ground twice a day as it keeps them active.
• Maintaining cows in good and medium weight is very important to ensure their health.
• Place jute bags over the cow shed in winter.
• Provide fresh and clean water to your animals during all seasons.
• Consult the vet for advice.
• It is recommended to assess cows once every two months.

Dairy Cow Farming (part-2)

In this section, we will learn-
1) Care and management of pregnant cows
2) Food for dairy cows
3) Housing

 Care and management of pregnant cows

• Taking good care and proper management is the main step to succeed in any animal husbandry business.
• Immunize them on time.
• Management of good care of pregnant animal will yield good calves and high milk yield.
• Immunize cows against diseases.
• There should be a separate shelter room for pregnant cows.
• Feed good quality of leguminous feed.
• Suitable fodder – wheat bran, oats, and linseed oil seeds.
• Provide calcium supplements.
• Special care should be taken about mineral and vitamin deficiencies as they can cause serious adverse effects on the newly born calf.
• The animal should neither be lean nor fat.
• Water should be provided for drinking at frequent intervals.
• Do not allow them to fight with other animals.
• Avoid a slippery condition, which causes fractures, dislocations, etc.

 Food for dairy cows

• Good foods ensure good health and maximum production.
• Always try to provide adequate quantity of high quality and nutritious foods to your cows.
• Greens help to maximize milk production.
• Add as much greens as possible to regular feed.
• Make a grazing place for your cows.
• Dairy cows require more water than any other animal.
• Their milk contains large amounts of water.
• Generally, a dairy cow needs about 5 liters of water to produce 1 liter of milk.

 Housing

• To keep their cows healthy, productive and free from diseases, good habitat is very important.
• Build proper ventilation systems, and ensure adequate flow of fresh air and light inside the house.
• Concrete house is very suitable for cows.
• Proper drainage of rainwater should be arranged to maintain a healthy environment.
• A lot of water is required for farm operations such as washing, fodder farming, processing of milk etc.
• A continuous water supply is essential.
• Electricity must be available on shed.
• Farm should be away from the noise producing factory / chemical industry.
• Industrial waste materials in the form of gaseous or liquid can pollute the surrounding resources.

Quizzes

Clean milk production & Cow Rearing

You have learnt in this courses about  Clean Milk Production, which covered the following aspects:

1. Definition of the clean milk

2. Milker

3. Milking

4. Milking environment

5. The Vessel

6. Filtering

7. Cow rearing methods

8. Insemination

Now you have to go through the quizzes to qualify this course

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