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Cattle Rearing

Learning objectives

After completing the course

For many years, dairy farmers have played an important role in economic growth due to milk production. Dairy farming refers to raising animals commercially for milk production. Animals that give milk are called milk / dairy animals. For example, goat, buffalo, cow, etc.There is a huge demand for milk and milk products worldwide. We have two courses, the present covering cow., and a separate course for goat/sheep rearing

The present course shall cover the scientific methods of rearing cattle, mainly cows and economic aspects of the business of cow rearing.

Course

Cattle raising for profit

  1. Practical & economic aspects milk production
  2. How to get profit from dairy farming?
  3.  Cattle raising
  4. Cattle health and protection from Diseases /vaccination
  5. Clean and healthy milk production /chilling

Curriculum

Background

Cattle rearing involves management of two types of animals- one group for food requirements like milk and another for labor purposes like plowing, irrigation, etc. Animals which provide milk are called milk/dairy animals. For example, goats, buffalo, cows, etc.

Cattle rearing is an important economic activity in India. Milk and milk products (Butter, Ghee etc) meat, eggs, leather, and silk are raw materials for industries. Animals provide a large proportion of energy required in the farm sector. The bullocks, buffaloes, horses, ponnies, camel etc. are used as draught animals. They are used in agricultural activities like ploughing of fields, drawing of water from wells and for carrying loads. It is to be noted here that with rise in mechanized farming, the use of animal power for farm operations is on gradual decline. Hides and skins of animals are used as raw material for leather industries. Sheep, goats and camels provide wool. Their dung are used for biomass gas production and for making manure.

Lesson-1

Practical and economic aspects of milk production दूध उत्पादन के व्यावहारिक और आर्थिक पहलू
الجوانب العملية والاقتصادية لإنتاج الحليب
Aspects pratiques et économiques de la production laitière

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Dairy farmers’ production systems worldwide need to combine profitability with the responsibility of protecting human health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Dairy farmers, as the primary producers in the supply chain, should add value to their product by adopting methods of production that satisfy the demands of processors and customers. milk production
Globally, 750 million people, are engaged in milk production Dairy accounts for more than 20% of the total agricultural value; namely in the following countries:
• New Zealand (35%)
• Finland (26%)
• India (24%)
• Luxembourg (23%)
• Estonia (23%)
• Switzerland (21%)
• Latvia (20%)
Milk is produced daily and provides a regular cash income to the owners.In addition to income from milk sales, sources of income include sales of animals and young stock, and other dairy farming returns, such as sales of manure. Dairy production provides many non-marketed economic benefits, including manure for use on-farm as fuel or organic fertilizer. Dairy production has lower economies of scale than other livestock systems because it requires high labour input.

In developing countries, dairy animals are often the sole asset of the landless. Milk production can involve many fixed costs, including fodder for animal maintenance. There is a need to adopt modern methods to gainfully employ this profession. This is more important in view of reports of FAO, “A dairy farm with nine cows in India has similar labour costs (per litre of milk) to those of a farm with 350 cows in the United States of America.”

Dairy development is a sustainable, equitable and powerful tool for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty reduction because dairying:

  1. provides a regular source of income;
  2. provides nutritious food;
  3. generates on- and off-farm employment;/li>
  4. creates opportunities for women (e.g., milk money);

 How to get profit from dairy farming?

  • Dairy farm is beneficial when-
    o You are able to control your costs.
    o You can provide the quality milk.
    o You can care the cattle.
  • In any dairy farm, fodder is a major expense
  • Fodder management can help reduce costs.
  • Keeping the cows energetic and healthy is very important for the growing dairy business.
  • Morning physical activity of cows is very important to keep them healthy.
  • Building a proper shelter also plays an important role in growing dairy.
  • It is also important to develop a detailed business plan.
  • Follow appropriate methods for marketing.
  • Try to hire dedicated and experienced people.
  • Try to buy bulk feeds at the best price but never compromise on quality.

 How to solve the fodder shortage?

  • Regular supply of fodder is essential for the development of dairy and livestock.
  • A major problem of dairy production is lack of fodder.
  • These issues come with increasing demand for dairy products.
  • Cattle are normally given green fodder, dry fodder and concentrated fodder.
  • Concentrated feeds contain a mixture of grains, minerals and vitamins.
  • The source of green fodder is from agricultural land, forest etc.
  • Silage is the best feed during lack of fodder.

Good dairy farming practice is that safe, quality milk should be produced from healthy animals using management practices that are sustainable from an animal welfare, social, economic and environmental perspective. It involves:
1. ANIMAL HEALTH
Animals that produce milk need to be healthy and an effective health care programme should be in place.

2. MILKING HYGIENE
Milk should be harvested and stored under hygienic conditions. Equipment used to harvest and store milk should be suitable and well maintained.
3. NUTRITION (FEED AND WATER)
Animals need to be fed and watered with products of suitable quality and safety.
4. ANIMAL WELFARE
Animals should be kept according to the following ‘five freedoms’:
• Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
• Freedom from discomfort
• Freedom from pain, injury and disease
• Freedom from fear
• Freedom to engage in relatively normal patterns of animal behavior
5. ENVIRONMENT
Milk production should be managed in balance with the local environment surrounding the farm.
6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT
Dairy farming provides economic and social benefits to farmers and their wider communities.
Now I will talk of the economic aspects of dairy.
Milk is produced daily and therefore provides a regular cash income. The farmgate milk price can be based on the milk’s compositional quality, its hygienic quality, and the time of year. However, the price paid by small-scale processors in developing countries is often based on only the fat content of the milk. In addition to income from milk sales, dairy producers’ sources of income include sales of culled animals and young stock, and other dairy farming returns, such as sales of manure and direct payments.

Dairy production provides many non-marketed economic benefits, including manure for use on-farm as fuel or organic fertilizer. Dairy animals are considered a means of safeguarding savings for sale in times of need and a form of capital investment.
The cost of feed greatly influences the price of milk. It directly affects milk production costs and indirectly leads to higher land values.
In developing countries, dairy animals are often the sole asset of the landless.
Milk production can involve many fixed costs, including fodder for animal maintenance. However overall the dairy is a profitable business. To share an example,
Ratan Lal Yadav, a resident of Loharwara village of Jaipur district in Rajasthan has an amazing experience to share. While talking with the reporter of News18, he told that a few years ago he started the dairy business with only 5 cows. Now it has extended to 80 animals including 35 milkers. 416 liters of milk are obtained daily from these 35 cattle while the average price of one liter is Rs 60. In this way, his total income per day is INR 24,960 while the total expenditure per day comes to INR 14,900. Hence, he gets a net profit of INR 3, 01,800 per month which is a huge profit.

Course Coordinator

Aprajita Srivastava

Course Material

Text Lessons-4

Video English lessons-4

Video Hindi lessons-7

Audio Hindi Lessons-8

Video Conferencing within the course

Quizzes

On-line Video Conferencing Lessons


Lesson-3

Clean milk /chilling स्वच्छ दूध /शीतलीकरण تنظيف الحليب / التبريد
Lait propre / refroidissement

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Video-1

Video-2

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

• Milk is basically produced as food for human consumption.
• It is the primary source of nutrition for infants.
• It should be produced and handled under hygienic condition.
In this section, we will learn-
1. What is clean milk?
2. Clean milk production techniques What is clean milk?

• ‘Clean milk’ refers to raw milk from healthy animals.
• Clean milk should free from harmful bacteria or chemicals, dust, dung, hair, flies etc. in it.
• It should be safe for human consumption.
 Clean milk production techniques

Milker

• Maintain small nails and cover the head.
• Avoid smoking while milking time.
• Always wash hands before tapping milk.

Milking environment
• Animals should be reared in a clean place.
• Provide a cement floor for easy and proper cleaning.
• The place should be cleaned regularly.
• The place should be washed with phenyl or bleaching powder.
• It should be cleaned after every milking.

Milking

• The animal should be bathed daily.
• Wash the udder thoroughly.
• Wipe the udder with a clean cloth.
• Regularize milking interval

The vessel

• Use a clean vessel for keep milk.
• Dirty utensils are the main source of harmful bacteria in milk.
• Use aluminum or stainless-steel utensils.
• Wash with warm water using brush and detergent.
• Place utensils on the rack to dry.

Filtering

• Use white filter cloth.
• Sieve immediately after milking.
• Wash and dry the filter cloth after use.

Chilling of milk
Chilling of milk means rapid cooling of raw milk to sufficiently low temperature so that the growth of micro-organisms present in milk is checked. In chilling process the temperature of milk should be reduced to less than 10 degree Celsius preferably 3 – 4 degree Celsius. Milk inside the udder is almost sterile and as soon as it leaves the udder, it is exposed to atmosphere. The microorganisms gain entry into the milk, the moment it comes to atmosphere.
Milk Chilling Plant, Capacity: 2000-5000 LPH may cost about Rs. Rs 3.5 Lakh/Unit

Lesson-2

Cow Rearing गाय पालन
تربية البقر
Élevage de vaches

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Video-1

Video-2

Pregnancy in cow

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Cow is a very useful domestic animal.
Dairy cows are reared exclusively to produce milk.

In this session, we will learn-
1) Selection of breed of cow
2) How to feed cows for more milk?
3) Caring of cows/ calves

4) Care and management of pregnant cows
5) Housing

Selection of cow breed

• Proper selection is the first and most important step that is adopted in dairy.
• Animals should be selected according to the climate.
• The animal should be selected based on its breed characters.
• Production of animals also varies within a breed.
• Other factors affecting milk production are the age of the animal, frequency of milking, management, type of nutrition, environment, stage of pregnancy, etc.
• Milk production capacity.
• Disease resistance
• Physical Appearance.
• Adaptability and heat tolerance.
• Temperament and dairy disposition.
• Service period.

Breed of cows in India-
Indigenous, high milk-yielding breeds in India include Red Sindhi, Sahiwal and Gir. Exotic or foreign breeds of cows include Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss.

Indian breeds of cows with high milk yielding capacity and lengthier lactation period are crossed with bullocks of exotic breeds to upgrade the quality of Indian breeds. High milk-yieldingcows developed through cross-breeding are Karan-Swiss and Frieswal.

Buffaloes in India- Buffaloes are the milch animals which provide us with large amount of milk. Buffalo milk is the largest source of milk in India. Murrah, a high-yielding breed of buffalo from Punjab and Haryana, yields 26-30 litres of milk per day. Mehsana from Gujarat yields up to 15-20 litres of milk every day. Other high milk-yielding varieties include Jaffarabadi, Nili, Nagpuri and Surti.

How to feed cows for more milk?

• Proper food and nutrition is important for the well-being of
milch animals.

• The food given to the animals is called as feed. Feed contains all the components essential for their growth and development. Animal feed comprises roughage and concentrates. The food of the cow determines the quality and quantity of milk produced.
• It is important that a farmer meets the nutritional requirements of a dairy cow by providing adequate rations.
• For a healthy and productive cow, feed ration must have a balance of quantity, quality, protein, minerals and vitamins.
• Roughage refers to coarse, fibrous substances with low-nutrient content in the animal feed. Animals get roughage from substances such as straw, green fodder, silage and legumes. Fodder is a heavy fodder that is full of energy and protein.
• Concentrates in the feed are nutrient-rich substances with low fibrous content. They are rich in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Grains and seeds, oil cakes, wheat bran, rice bran, alfalfa and clover provide all the required nutrients. Dairy animals also require feed additives comprising non-nutritive material such as antibiotics for
disease-resistance and hormones for growth.These materials are added to the livestock feed to enhance the animals’ growth and milk yield and protect them from diseases. These are important for high milk production in dairy cows.
• A dairy cow should consume 15 to 20 kg of fodder daily.

Caring of cows / calves

• It is important to pay attention to the health and hygiene status of the cows and calves.
• Keep them clean and dry.
• Cows need many dietary components to stay healthy.
• High yielding dairy cows require high amounts of protein such as mixed weed feed, alfalfa, and other protein supplements.
• They also require salt and minerals.
• Feed them well in the morning with all nutritious foods.
• Sitting in the shelter all day weakens their bones.
• They should be left in the open ground twice a day as it keeps them active.
• Maintaining cows in good and medium weight is very important to ensure their health.
• Place jute bags over the cow shed in winter.
• Provide fresh and clean water to your animals during all seasons.
• Consult the vet for advice.
• It is recommended to assess cows once every two months.
• Good foods ensure good health and maximum production.
• Always try to provide adequate quantity of high quality and nutritious foods to your cows.
• Greens help to maximize milk production.
• Add as much greens as possible to regular feed.
• Make a grazing place for your cows.
• Dairy cows require more water than any other animal.
• Their milk contains large amounts of water.
• Generally, a dairy cow needs about 5 liters of water to produce 1 liter of milk.

Care and management of pregnant cows

• Taking good care and proper management is the main step to succeed in any animal husbandry business.
• Immunize them on time.
• Management of good care of pregnant animal will yield good calves and high milk yield.
• Immunize cows against diseases.
• There should be a separate shelter room for pregnant cows.
• Feed good quality of leguminous feed.
• Suitable fodder – wheat bran, oats, and linseed oil seeds.
• Provide calcium supplements.
• Special care should be taken about mineral and vitamin deficiencies as they can cause serious adverse effects on the newly born calf.
• The animal should neither be lean nor fat.
• Water should be provided for drinking at frequent intervals.
• Do not allow them to fight with other animals.
• Avoid a slippery condition, which causes fractures, dislocations, etc.

Housing

• To keep their cows healthy, productive and free from diseases, good habitat is very important.
• Build proper ventilation systems, and ensure adequate flow of fresh air and light inside the house.
• Concrete house is very suitable for cows.
• Proper drainage of rainwater should be arranged to maintain a healthy environment.
• A lot of water is required for farm operations such as washing, fodder farming, processing of milk etc.
• A continuous water supply is essential.
• Electricity must be available on shed.
• Farm should be away from the noise producing factory / chemical industry.
• Industrial waste materials in the form of gaseous or liquid can pollute the surrounding resources.

Lesson-4

Cattle health and protection from diseases /Vaccination
मवेशी स्वास्थ्य और बीमारियों से सुरक्षा / टीकाकरण
Santé du bétail et protection contre les maladies / Vaccination
صحة الماشية وحمايتها من الأمراض / التطعيم

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Animals that produce milk need to be healthy and an effective health care programme should be in place.
Diseases in milch animals
Animals are prone to occasional sickness and diseases. Diseases of milch animals are classified into three categories: parasitic, communicable and non-communicable.
a) Parasitic diseases
Parasitic diseases may be caused by ectoparasites and endoparasites.
• Ectoparasites are external parasites such as ticks, fleas and lice which mainly live in skin and cause skin diseases.
• Endoparasites are worms such as tapeworm that are found inside the body of the animals and affect the stomach and intestine.
b) Communicable diseases
Communicable diseases in milch animals are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and fungi.
1) Viral diseases
Most common viral diseases in milch animals are foot and mouth diseases and cowpox disease. Foot and mouth disease is a common, highly contagious viral disease in milch animals. Animals suffering from this disease exhibit blisters on their feet and mouth, excessive salivation and limping and shivering with high body temperature.

• Cowpox is a viral disease caused by pox virus. Affected animals develop small nodules all over their bodies.

2) Bacterial diseases
Cattle suffer from bacterial diseases like cattle plague or rinderpest, salmonellosis and anthrax.
Anthrax is a very acute and infectious bacterial disease. It causes the swelling in the body parts of the animal, especially the neck, and is accompanied by high fever.
3) Fungal diseases
Milch animals also suffer from fungal diseases such as ringworm disease. Fungus infect the intestines and other organs of the milch animals. The symptoms of this disease are grey-white areas of skin with an ash-like surface that are circular, slightly raised and are found on different body parts.
c) Non-communicable diseases
Non-communicable diseases are the diseases which are caused by nutrient deficiency, malfunctioning of body organs and mechanical injuries such as fractures.
Symptoms of sick animals
• Change in the behaviour of an animal is an indication of sickness in the animal. Animal requires immediate medical attention during sickness.
• Sick animals become dull and tired and their lips and ears droop.
• Sick animals stop feeding their young ones and there is less production of milk.
• Sick animals pass loose dung and coloured urine and sometimes they may either feel very hot or very cold.

Vaccination
Regular vaccination is the easiest and cheapest way to prevent diseases.

Quizzes

Clean milk production & Cow Rearing

You have learnt in this courses about  Clean Milk Production, which covered the following aspects:

1. Definition of the clean milk

2. Milker

3. Milking

4. Milking environment

5. The Vessel

6. Filtering

7. Cow rearing methods

8. Insemination

Now you have to go through the quizzes to qualify this course

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