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Modern methods of seed production and quality certification

Learning objectives

After completing the course

In this course, we will study the production of high quality seeds. This will include methods, precautions, quality control and certification.

Curriculum

Background

Among all inputs in agriculture seed is the critical, vital and most important Input. India has made significant advance in agriculture in the last four decades, in which role of the seed sector has been substantial. The Indian Seed Industry is currently valued about Rs. 6,500 crores. There are about 150 – 200 organized seed companies existing in India today.

In this course, we will study:
1) Importance of Quality Seeds
2) Difference between seed and edible grain
3) Types of plants
4) Seed production

5. Quality and Certification

Course

Modern methods of seed production and quality certification
बीज उत्पादन के आधुनिक तरीके और गुणवत्ता प्रमाणीकरण
الأساليب الحديثة لإنتاج البذور وشهادات الجودة Br>
Méthodes modernes de production de semences et certification de la qualité

Lait propre / refroidissement

Lesson-1

Seed Production techniques Part-1

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Substantial increase in yield and quality of crops depends upon a number of factors namely, fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection and agronomic practices. The use of high-quality seed plays a vital role in the crop production. Farming can benefit by use of advanced varieties of seeds. In this course, we will study:
1) Importance of Quality Seeds
2) Difference between seed and edible grain
3) Types of plants
4) Seed production
Importance of Quality Seeds
• It is basic element to good crop and yield and increases agricultural production.
• It is the cheapest in crop production but it is most important key of agriculture progress.
• Crop status largely depends on the seed materials used.
• According to the experts, good quality seeds to improved varieties can contribute about 20-25% increase in yield.
Difference between seed and grain

Seeds must meet minimum seed certification standards.

Seeds should have germination capacity that is not mandatory from grains.

The seed must be genetically pure.

Not all seeds are edible but almost all grains are edible.

For seed production, it is necessary to know the type of plants.

Types of plants
Depending on pollination, plants are divided in two types-
• Self-pollination
• Cross-pollination

a) Self-pollination: In this, both males and females are found in the same plant. There is less dependence on the external factors to cause pollination. These plants depend on wind or other smaller insects that visit the flower regularly. Example- paddy, wheat etc.
b) Cross-pollination: In this, the pollen is transferred from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another flower. Cross-pollination is always dependent on another agent to cause the pollination. Example-maize. This degrades the seed quality.
Seed Production

Production of high-quality seed is vital to modern agriculture. Seed quality can have a major impact on crop yield. The following points are necessary for seed production-

Crop selection
Factors affecting crop selection-
1) Climate factor
2) Water requirement
3) Soil condition
4) Availability and cost of planting materials

Selection of crop species
Always select the same crop species which is recommended in your local region.
Class of Seeds
The seeds are categorized into three parts and we can easily identify by their tag colour. Certification is required only for foundation seeds and certified seeds.
Breeder seed
Foundation seed
Certified seed
Registration
There are about 23 seed certified institutions in India. Farmers who want to produce seeds are required to register first. A date has been determined for registration.
For Rabi crops- 15th January
For Kharif crops- 15th July
Precautions while buying seeds

a) Buy only certified seeds.
b) Take the receipt while purchasing the seed.
c) Never buy open seeds.
d) Buy the seeds after seeing the label.
e) Must read the written specification in the tag.

Seed Treatment
Seed treatment refers to protect the seeds from pathogens, insects, soil-borne pathogens and unusual conditions.
Ex- Vitavax is a fungicide used for seed treatment. It uses 2.5g/kg seed.
Note- For seed producers, it is very important to make a proper document in which all the required information are available like seed details, pesticide details, etc.

 

Course Coordinator

Prof. Dr. H. O. Srivastava

Course Material

Text lessons-4

Video lessons in English-4

Video lessons in Hindi-3

Quizzes

Course

Modern methods of seed production and quality certification
बीज उत्पादन के आधुनिक तरीके और गुणवत्ता प्रमाणीकरण
الأساليب الحديثة لإنتاج البذور وشهادات الجودة Br>
Méthodes modernes de production de semences et certification de la qualité

Lait propre / refroidissement

Lesson-2

Seed Production techniques Part-2

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Seed Production Techniques (part 2)

Rouging

  1. Rouging is required for seed production.
  2. It is a process of removal of weak, undesirable, diseased or abnormal plants from the field.
  3. In order to maintain the genetic purity, seed crop should be isolated from other crops of other varieties.
  4. Rouging at all stages of the crop in the field is an essential requirement. They are easy to identify. They may differ – in height, colour, maturity and flowering time, etc.
  • During Flowering
  1. The field should have uniform plants.
  2. Premature and post-flowering plants should be removed from the field.
  • Before Harvesting
  1. In some plants, a similar bud came out but it ripened quickly compared to others, such plants should also be removed from the field.
  2. All buds should have the same color, composition, length, thickness, uniformity. If not, such plants should be removed from the field.

Use of Fertilizer & Irrigation

When the crop is sown after treating the seeds, it is necessary to take full care of the amount of water and fertilizers at the time of irrigation.

  • Fertilizer

Soils naturally contain many nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium. These nutrients help plants to grow. When soil nutrients are missing or in short supply, plants suffer from nutrient deficiency and stop growing.

  1. Farmers use fertilizers because these substances contain plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
  2. Fertilizer should be used in balanced quantities in the crop.
  3. Farmers have the myth that a high amount of nitrogen makes the crop better, but it is not so. Rather it makes the colour of plants more green which invites insects and diseases. Fertilizer should always be given in the crop in 4: 2: 1 (nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium) quantity.
  4. Do not use too much urea in the crop; this causes damage to the crop.
  • Irrigation

It is important to supply water to crops and plants from periodically according to their requirement. Irrigation is the appropriate supply of water to plants.

According to experts, irrigation should be done within 20-25 days, otherwise the productivity of the crop decreases significantly and seed quality also affected.

Irrigation provides the moisture that is crucial during the germination phase of the plant’s life cycle.

Course

Modern methods of seed production and quality certification
बीज उत्पादन के आधुनिक तरीके और गुणवत्ता प्रमाणीकरण
الأساليب الحديثة لإنتاج البذور وشهادات الجودة Br>
Méthodes modernes de production de semences et certification de la qualité

Lait propre / refroidissement

Lesson-4

Seed quality and certification

Video lesson in English

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Seed quality and certification
Among all inputs in agriculture seed is the critical, vital and most important Input. India has made significant advance in agriculture in the last four decades, in which role of the seed sector has been substantial. The Indian Seed Industry is currently valued about Rs. 6,500 crores. There are about 150 – 200 organized seed companies existing in India today. The present Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) is around 15-20 % for various crops. This SRR level has to be increased to 25 % (proposed 35 %) in self pollinated crops, 33 % in cross pollinated crops (proposed 50%) and 100 % for hybrid crops, in order to increase sustainable agriculture production and productivity for achieving the food, nutritional and social security. Making quality seeds available is going to be one of the most important challenges before us. India has sizeable public and private sector seed businesses. Giant public sector players include the National Seeds Corporation (NSC), the State Farms Corporation of India (SFCI) and thirteen State Seeds Corporations (SSCs).
Seed quality control Quality control is an important component of the seed programme. There are two aspects of quality control. Firstly the genetic purity of the seed maintained during the production and marketing. Secondly it should have adequate qualities like high Germination and Physical purity, free from weed seeds, disease and have optimum moisture content.
Variety release systems aim to make only those varieties of proven value available to farmers through the formal seed system. • Seed certification aims to control the varietal identity and purity throughout the seed chain. • Seed quality control checks on other seed characteristics such as viability, purity and seed health. Seed quality control also aims at protecting bona fide seed producers from competition by less scrupulous colleagues.
Seed Certification Government of India established Certification Agencies for the states under Section 8 of the Seeds Act 1966 and registered under the Societies Act, 1886. Truthfully Labelled Seed should carry Opale green colour tag.
Validity Period of the Certificate The validity period of the seed lot will be nine months from the date of test at the time of initial certification.

Course

Modern methods of seed production and quality certification
बीज उत्पादन के आधुनिक तरीके और गुणवत्ता प्रमाणीकरण
الأساليب الحديثة لإنتاج البذور وشهادات الجودة Br>
Méthodes modernes de production de semences et certification de la qualité

Lait propre / refroidissement

Lesson-3

Seed Production techniques Part-3

Video lesson in English

Video lesson in Hindi

Text lesson in English (You can convert into any language by using language selection at top)

Seed Production Techniques (part 3)
In agriculture and horticulture, hybrid seeds are produced by crossing two different varieties of the same plant. The crossing involves taking pollen from the male flower of a plant and transferring it to the female flower parts of a different plant. After the female flower is pollinated, it will begin to thrive and become fruit. The seeds that grow inside that fruit are hybrid seeds.
Hybrid seed production is prominent in modern agriculture.
In self-pollinating crops, cross-pollination is difficult, but in cross-pollination crops, it is easy.
To produce hybrid seeds, a pollination control system is needed to prevent unwanted self-pollination.
The crop species are maize, sunflower, sorbet and wheat.

Some advantages of using hybrid seeds:
They are easier and faster to develop.
They are often produced large fruits and give higher yields.
It is much less affected by various types of environmental stresses such as insects and plant diseases.
It also has the advantage that it offers superior in an impressive manner compared to non-hybrid seeds.
Hybrid seeds are the most drought and pest tolerant.
It helps in the process of acquiring very new species of vegetables or flowers etc.
Thus, with the help of hybrid seeds, farmers can avoid various yield-related risks.

Tips for storing seeds-
First, you need to keep the seeds cool and dry.
Put them in a plastic ziplock bag, canister or jar with a tight-fitting lid.
Farmers can store seeds in earthen mud pots.
It is best to keep a packet of silica gel in the container to help keep the seeds dry. Change it in every six months.
Keep the container in a dry and cool place.
Moisture and humidity shorten the shelf life of a seed.
When you are ready to use them, take out the canister and keep it closed until the seeds come to room temperature.

Modern Methods of Seed Production and quality Certification

Modern Ways of seed production Quizzes

You have learnt:

1) Importance of Quality Seeds
2) Difference between seed and edible grain
3) Types of plants
4) Seed production

Now you take the test:

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